National Popular Vote Plan vs. Electoral College

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Dr. Jack Nagel, professor of political science, University of Pennsylvania


* Research focuses on elections, political participation and voting theory

* Publications include "The Probability of Disputable Outcomes under Direct and Indirect Elections, with Applications to the Electoral College"

* Advisor to the Center for Voting and Democracy's Fair Vote project


"I support the national popular vote movement because the likelihood of disputes in a presidential election is greater under the Electoral College than it would be in a national direct election.  Mathematically and historically, when most states permitted citizens to vote for president from 1828 to 2004, disputable elections have been two to five times more frequent under the Electoral College than they would have been for direct popular elections, depending on the thresholds assumed for disputability in electorates of varying sizes."